Inclusion Criteria- Documented TIA or mild non-disabling stroke within the previous 3 months.
- At least one of the following vascular risk factors: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or cigarette smoking
Exclusion Criteria- Inability to speak or understand English or provide informed consent.
- Severe aphasia that renders communication difficult or impossible.
- Modified Rankin Scale score of greater than or equal to 3.
- Mini-Mental Status Examination score of less than or equal to 20.
- Evidence of intracranial hemorrhage confirmed by CT scan or MRI study.
- Anticipated or recent (<30 days) carotid endarterectomy, angioplasty and/or stenting.
- Resides >1 hour travel time from London or Ottawa.
- Prior participation in a CCR program.
- Inability to perform expected exercise training of CCR program.
- Evidence of cardioembolic source for TIA/stroke such as atrial fibrillation, valvular disease, septal defect or left ventricular wall motion abnormality.
- Participation in another clinical trial that could interfere with the intervention or outcomes of the current study.