Inclusion Criteria1. Sufficient cognition to follow simple instructions, as well as understand the content and purpose of the experiment;
2. Subcortical ischemic lesion within the territory of the middle cerebral artery;
3. Have moderate to severe motor disability at the paretic upper limb (assessed by Fugl-Meter Assessment (FMA), Modified Ashworth Score of fingers (MAS), and Action Research Arm Test(ARAT)).
4. Hemiparesis resulting from a single unilateral lesion of the brain with onset at least 6 months before data collection.
Exclusion Criteria1. Severe hand spasticity, open hand wound or hand deformity;
2. Visual field deficits;
3. Aphasia, neglect, and apraxia,
4. Participation in any therapeutic treatment ("outside therapy") performed with the paralyzed arm during the planned study - including baseline and follow up.
5. History of alcohol, drug abuse or epilepsy,
6. Bilateral infracts,
7. Uncontrolled medical problems,
8. Serious cognitive deficits,
9. Other MRI contraindications