Botulinum Toxin Type A and Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Poststroke Upper Extremity Spasticity


Phase N/A Results N/A

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

- age 18 to 80 years
- at least 1 year after a unilateral stroke
- modified ashworth scale (MAS) score > 3 in the elbow, wrist or finger flexors
- ability to actively extend > 10 degrees at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints and 20 degrees at wrist of the affected upper limb (minimal motor criteria).

Exclusion Criteria

- presence of fixed joint contractures
- serious balance problems
- preexisting neurological deficits, neuromuscular diseases or uncontrolled medical conditions
- significant cognitive deficits (Mini-Mental Status Examination score < 24)
- excessive pain in the affected upper limb
- previous treatment with Botulinum toxin A, neurolytic agents or surgery for spasticity
All patients were not currently participating in any experimental studies and did not receive concomitant oral anti-spastic medication during the study period