Botulinum Toxin Injections by Ultrasounds Guidance and Stretching Exercise in Spastic Toe Clawing

Completed

Phase 3 Results N/A

References

Publications

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  • Gracies JM, Nance P, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM. Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part II: General and regional treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1997;6:S92-120. Review. Pubmed ID:9826984
  • O'Brien CF. Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin. Clin J Pain. 2002 Nov-Dec;18(6 Suppl):S182-90. Review. Pubmed ID:12569967
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  • Stoquart GG, Detrembleur C, Palumbo S, Deltombe T, Lejeune TM. Effect of botulinum toxin injection in the rectus femoris on stiff-knee gait in people with stroke: a prospective observational study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jan;89(1):56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2007.08.131. Pubmed ID:18164331
  • Lim EC, Ong BK, Seet RC. Botulinum toxin-A injections for spastic toe clawing. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2006 Jan;12(1):43-7. Epub 2005 Sep 29. Pubmed ID:16198612
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  • Chin TY, Nattrass GR, Selber P, Graham HK. Accuracy of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A in juvenile cerebral palsy: a comparison between manual needle placement and placement guided by electrical stimulation. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 May-Jun;25(3):286-91. Pubmed ID:15832139
  • Molloy FM, Shill HA, Kaelin-Lang A, Karp BI. Accuracy of muscle localization without EMG: implications for treatment of limb dystonia. Neurology. 2002 Mar 12;58(5):805-7. Pubmed ID:11889247
  • O'Brien CF. Injection techniques for botulinum toxin using electromyography and electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1997;6:S176-80. Review. Pubmed ID:9826989
  • Berweck S, Schroeder AS, Fietzek UM, Heinen F. Sonography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in children with cerebral palsy. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):249-50. Pubmed ID:14738817
  • Schroeder AS, Berweck S, Lee SH, Heinen F. Botulinum toxin treatment of children with cerebral palsy - a short review of different injection techniques. Neurotox Res. 2006 Apr;9(2-3):189-96. Review. Pubmed ID:16785117
  • Sconfienza LM, Perrone N, Lacelli F, Lentino C, Serafini G. Ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of iliopsoas spasticity. J Ultrasound. 2008 Sep;11(3):113-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jus.2008.05.002. Epub 2008 Jul 3. Pubmed ID:23396653
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  • Critchfield J. Considering the immune response to botulinum toxin. Clin J Pain. 2002 Nov-Dec;18(6 Suppl):S133-41. Review. Pubmed ID:12569960

Sources for Trial Information