Botulinim Toxin Type A Injections by Different Guidance in Stroke Patients With Spasticity on Lower Extremities

Not yet recruiting

Phase 3 Results N/A



  • Stoquart GG, Detrembleur C, Palumbo S, Deltombe T, Lejeune TM. Effect of botulinum toxin injection in the rectus femoris on stiff-knee gait in people with stroke: a prospective observational study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Jan;89(1):56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2007.08.131. Pubmed ID:18164331
  • Caty GD, Detrembleur C, Bleyenheuft C, Deltombe T, Lejeune TM. Effect of simultaneous botulinum toxin injections into several muscles on impairment, activity, participation, and quality of life among stroke patients presenting with a stiff knee gait. Stroke. 2008 Oct;39(10):2803-8. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.516153. Epub 2008 Jul 17. Pubmed ID:18635841
  • Wissel J, Ward AB, Erztgaard P, Bensmail D, Hecht MJ, Lejeune TM, Schnider P, Altavista MC, Cavazza S, Deltombe T, Duarte E, Geurts AC, Gracies JM, Haboubi NH, Juan FJ, Kasch H, K├Ątterer C, Kirazli Y, Manganotti P, Parman Y, Paternostro-Sluga T, Petropoulou K, Prempeh R, Rousseaux M, Slawek J, Tieranta N. European consensus table on the use of botulinum toxin type A in adult spasticity. J Rehabil Med. 2009 Jan;41(1):13-25. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0303. Pubmed ID:19197564
  • Chin TY, Nattrass GR, Selber P, Graham HK. Accuracy of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A in juvenile cerebral palsy: a comparison between manual needle placement and placement guided by electrical stimulation. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005 May-Jun;25(3):286-91. Pubmed ID:15832139
  • Molloy FM, Shill HA, Kaelin-Lang A, Karp BI. Accuracy of muscle localization without EMG: implications for treatment of limb dystonia. Neurology. 2002 Mar 12;58(5):805-7. Pubmed ID:11889247
  • Yang EJ, Rha DW, Yoo JK, Park ES. Accuracy of manual needle placement for gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy checked against ultrasonography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 May;90(5):741-4. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.10.025. Pubmed ID:19406292
  • O'Brien CF. Injection techniques for botulinum toxin using electromyography and electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1997;6:S176-80. Review. Pubmed ID:9826989
  • Berweck S, Schroeder AS, Fietzek UM, Heinen F. Sonography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in children with cerebral palsy. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):249-50. Pubmed ID:14738817
  • Schroeder AS, Berweck S, Lee SH, Heinen F. Botulinum toxin treatment of children with cerebral palsy - a short review of different injection techniques. Neurotox Res. 2006 Apr;9(2-3):189-96. Review. Pubmed ID:16785117
  • Picelli A, Bonetti P, Fontana C, Barausse M, Dambruoso F, Gajofatto F, Tamburin S, Girardi P, Gimigliano R, Smania N. Accuracy of botulinum toxin type A injection into the gastrocnemius muscle of adults with spastic equinus: manual needle placement and electrical stimulation guidance compared using ultrasonography. J Rehabil Med. 2012 May;44(5):450-2. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0970. Pubmed ID:22549655
  • Picelli A, Tamburin S, Bonetti P, Fontana C, Barausse M, Dambruoso F, Gajofatto F, Santilli V, Smania N. Botulinum toxin type A injection into the gastrocnemius muscle for spastic equinus in adults with stroke: a randomized controlled trial comparing manual needle placement, electrical stimulation and ultrasonography-guided injection techniques. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Nov;91(11):957-64. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e318269d7f3. Pubmed ID:23085706
  • Lim EC, Ong BK, Seet RC. Botulinum toxin-A injections for spastic toe clawing. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2006 Jan;12(1):43-7. Epub 2005 Sep 29. Pubmed ID:16198612
  • Suputtitada A. Local botulinum toxin type A injections in the treatment of spastic toes. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002 Oct;81(10):770-5. Pubmed ID:12362118

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