Inclusion Criteria- Aged > 18 years old,
- Undergoing elective or urgent spinal surgery,
- Included are procedures aimed to decompress the spinal canal in the lumbar region due to a degenerative disease, i.e., laminectomy, discectomy and foraminotomies.
Exclusion Criteria- Patients with an infectious disease, tumor resection, trauma cases, or
- Patients requiring lumbar fixation.