Inclusion Criteria- Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke >6 months prior in men or women aged between 18-80 years.
- Clear indications of hemiparetic gait by clinical observation.
- Completed all conventional physical therapy.
- Ability to walk on a treadmill with handrail support.
Exclusion Criteria- Cardiac history of (a) unstable angina, (b) recent (less than 3 months) myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (NYHA category II); (c) hemodynamically significant valvular dysfunction.
- Major clinical depression: CESD score > 16 and judgment of clinical depression
- Medical History: (a) recent hospitalization (less than 3 months) for severe medical disease, (b) symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease, (c) orthopedic or chronic pain conditions that significantly alter gait function, (d) pulmonary or renal failure (e) active cancer
- History of non-stroke neuromuscular disorder restricting gait.
- Aphasia or cognitive functioning that confounds participation, defined as unable to follow 2 step commands. The Mini Mental State Exam will be administered with a cut-off of less than 23 (less than 17 if education level at or below 8th grade), or judgment of the medical officer.
- Hypertension that is a contraindication for a bout of treadmill training (greater than 160/100 on two assessments).
- Self-report of pregnancy