Inclusion Criteria- diagnosed as having a unilateral stroke;
- 1 to 12 months after stroke onset
- from 20 to 80 years of age
- a baseline score of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) of 20 to 60
- able to follow the study instructions
- capable of participating in therapy and assessment sessions.
Exclusion Criteria- patients with global or receptive aphasia,
- severe neglect
- major medical problems, or comorbidities that influenced UE usage or caused severe pain
Additionally, if patients have no metal implants, no head traumas or neurosurgical operations, and can perform MEG motor tasks, the participants can additionally participate in the MEG assessment.