A Study of Post-Stroke Pain and Fatigue: Clinical Evaluation and Treatment Effect

Recruiting

Phase N/A Results N/A

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

1. first-ever stroke with onset duration more than 3 months;
2. self-reported at least mild intensity of hemiplegic shoulder pain and poststroke fatigue in the past 7 days (the NRS score ≥ 2);
3. Brunnstrom stage III or above and an initial Fugl-Meyer Assessment score of 56 to 79 or 65-100 indicating moderate or mild movement impairment for Stage 2;
4. no serious cognitive deficits (a score of more than 22 on the Mini Mental State Exam);
5. no participation in any experimental rehabilitation or drug studies during the study period; and (6) willing to provide written informed consent prior to study entry.

Exclusion Criteria

1. history of ventricular arrhythmias, or with a cardiac pacemaker, especially those with cardiac failure with conduction problems;
2. previous contralateral stroke with persistent neurological deficit;
3. a shoulder pathology not related to the stroke (tumor, infection, scapular instability, winged scapula);
4. complicated regional pain syndrome or brachial plexus lesion;
5. diagnosis of epilepsy with history of recurring seizures in the past six months;
6. under irregular analgesia or other fatigue-relieving treatment during the study period because we expect that pain/fatigue medications might complicate measurements of shoulder pain and fatigue. If patients are on regular treatment, it has been so for more than one week;
7. acute pain after operation; and
8. auditory, visual, physical, or mental disabilities that would interfere with patients' ability to comprehend instructions for completing the outcome measures.