Inclusion Criteria1. Aged 21-80 years with first-ever clinical stroke diagnosed on CT or MRI brain imaging.
2. Stroke duration of 3-24 months.
3. Stroke type: ischemic or haemorrhagic
4. Fugl-Meyer motor score of the upper limb range from 10-50
5. Ability to pay attention and maintain supported sitting for 1.5 hours continuously
6. Able to give own consent and understand simple instructions
7. Fulfils BCI resting brain states on initial screening.
Exclusion Criteria1. Recurrent clinical stroke
2. Functional status: severe aphasia or inattention, unstable medical conditions which may affect participation (e.g. unresolved sepsis, postural hypotension, end stage renal failure) or anticipated life expectancy of <1 year due to malignancy or neurodegenerative disorder)
3. Hemispatial neglect (visual or sensory) or severe visual impairment despite visual aids
4. History of epilepsy, severe depression or active psychiatric disorder
5. Skull defect or previous cranial surgery as this would affect physical fit of EEG cap interface
6. Local arm factors: severe spasticity Modified Ashworth scale >2 in any region, visual analogue scale (VAS score) >4/10, fixed joint contractures or joint replacements, patients with poor skin conditions which would contraindicate repetitive arm training.
7. TMS contraindications: females with reproductive potential not on reliable contraception; pregnancy; cardiac pacemakers; orthodontics (braces); metal implants.